Eruptions-Update 16.01.21: Merapi, Montagne Pelée, Soufrière. Why do volcanoes blow their tops? This magma tends to be extremely viscous because of its high silica content, so it often does not reach the surface but cools and solidifies at depth. Such volcanoes are able to severely cool global temperatures for many years after the eruption due to the huge volumes of sulfur and ash released into the atmosphere. The last major eruption took place between March and April 1984. Nevertheless, volcanoes may remain dormant for a long period of time. The planet may have had a major global resurfacing event about 500 million years ago, from what scientists can tell from the density of impact craters on the surface.  Volcanic eruptions may have contributed to major extinction events, such as the End-Ordovician, Permian-Triassic, and Late Devonian mass extinctions. It is covered with volcanoes that erupt sulfur, sulfur dioxide and silicate rock, and as a result, Io is constantly being resurfaced. Its submarine flanks descend to the sea floor an additional 5 km (3 mi), and the sea floor in turn is depressed by Mauna Loa's great mass another 8 km (5 mi). Very hot!! Cinder cones result from eruptions of mostly small pieces of scoria and pyroclastics (both resemble cinders, hence the name of this volcano type) that build up around the vent. However, radar sounding by the Magellan probe revealed evidence for comparatively recent volcanic activity at Venus's highest volcano Maat Mons, in the form of ash flows near the summit and on the northern flank. Mauna Loa is the largest volcano in the world. As with mid-ocean ridges, the rising mantle rock experiences decompression melting which generates large volumes of magma. The alert level on Mauna Loa was last raised to advisory in 2015 By Associated Press The 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa was a Hawaiian eruption in the U.S. state of Hawaii that lasted from March 25 to April 15, 1984. Pāhoehoe flows are sometimes observed to transition to ʻaʻa flows as they move away from the vent, but never the reverse. Stovall, W.K., Driedger, C.L., Westby, E.G., and Faust, L.M., 2019, Living with volcano hazards: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3075, 6 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183075. Other principal volcanic gases include hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Changes in the planet's atmosphere and observations of lightning have been attributed to ongoing volcanic eruptions, although there is no confirmation of whether or not Venus is still volcanically active. Cryptodomes are formed when viscous lava is forced upward causing the surface to bulge. Thus subduction zones are bordered by chains of volcanoes called volcanic arcs. Eruptions typically start at the summit and, within minutes to months of eruption onset, about half of the eruptions migrate into either the Northeast or Southwest Rift Zones. The form and style of eruption of a volcano is largely determined by the composition of the lava it erupts. Marcari, G., G. Fabbrocino, and G. Manfredi. Stratovolcanoes are also known as composite volcanoes because they are created from multiple structures during different kinds of eruptions. Most scientists consider a volcano active if it has erupted in the last 10,000 years (Holocene times)—the Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program uses this definition of active. Vents that issue volcanic material (including lava and ash) and gases (mainly steam and magmatic gases) can develop anywhere on the landform and may give rise to smaller cones such as Puʻu ʻŌʻō on a flank of Hawaii's Kīlauea.  In shallow water, active volcanoes disclose their presence by blasting steam and rocky debris high above the ocean's surface. These volcanoes are also called table mountains, tuyas, or (in Iceland) mobergs. Whether a volcano is truly extinct is often difficult to determine. Viewing an erupting volcano is a memorable experience, one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination since before the dawn of civilization. Black smokers (also known as deep sea vents) are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. , Tephra and other volcaniclastics (shattered volcanic material) make up more of the volume of many volcanoes than do lava flows. , Subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. Large eruptions can affect atmospheric temperature as ash and droplets of sulfuric acid obscure the Sun and cool the Earth's troposphere. Lava flows constitute the greatest volcanic hazard from these volcanoes. However, villages were damaged by the eruptions of Mauna Loa in 1926 and 1950. Fortunately this did not happen because the eruption activity soon shifted to the northeast rift zone. 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