The German “Iron Chancellor” Otto van Bismarck would later ruefully remark that “the most significant event of the 20th Century will be the fact that the North Americans speak English”. a. The attention of the world's linguists turned more and more to the study of grammar—in the technical sense of the term the organization of the sound system of a language and the internal structure of its words and sentences. It comprises French, Latin, German, Norse, and a few lesser known tongues. The 20th Century was, among other things, a century of world wars, technological transformation, and globalization, and each has provided a source of new additions to the lexicon. The debate (db8) continues as to whether texting is killing or enriching the English language. The push for political correctness and inclusiveness in the last third of the 20th Century, particularly by homosexuals, feminists and visible minority groups, led to a reassessment of the popular usage of many words. Another English speaking country, the USA, continued the English language dominance of new technology and innovation with inventions like electricity, the telegraph, the telephone, the phonograph, the sewing machine, the computer, etc. For instance, Australia gave us a set of words (not particularly useful outside the context of Australia itself) like boomerang, kangaroo, budgerigar, etc. cobber, digger, pom, dinkum, walkabout, tucker, dunny). Context • The industrial revolution influenced the English language as new ideas and contraptions were being invented, along with a range of new fields people could work in • English started to become an international language at this point. “me go run school”, “him done go”, etc), but adjectives are also often used instead of adverbs, verbs instead of prepositions, pronouns are no inflected, etc. In addition to Britain’s contribution to the Indian language, though, India’s many languages (particularly Hindi) gave back many words such as pyjamas, bandanna, pundit, bungalow, veranda, dinghy, cot, divan, ghoul, jungle, loot, cash, toddy, curry, candy, chit, thug, punch (the drink), cushy, yoga, bangle, shampoo, khaki, turban, tank, juggernaut, etc. American spelling is also becoming more commonplace in Britain (e.g. At the peak of immigration, from 1901 to 1905, America absorbed a million Italians, a million Austro-Hungarians, half a million Russians and tens of thousands each from many other countries. Learn more. Due to its extensive lineage and consistent reformation, the English language holds a highly diversified panorama of linguistic landscape. The slaves transported by the British to work in the plantations of the American south and the islands of the West Indies were mainly from a region of West Africa rich in hundreds of different languages, and most were superb natural linguists, often speaking anywhere between three and six African languages fluently. During this time, there began to be a standardization of printed language due to the arrival of the printing press in England in 1475. Brer Lion bin a hunt) or left out completely (e.g. Although English was always - and remains - a minority language, spoken by less than 10% of South Africans, Afrikaans was seen by the 80% black majority as the language of authority and repression (the word apartheid, in addition to trek, remains South Africa's best known contribution to the English lexicon), and English represented for them a means of achieving an international voice. But there has also been a certain amount of positive re-branding and reclamation (also known as reappropriation) of many pejorative words, such as gay, queer, queen, dyke, bitch, nigger, etc, by those very same marginalized segments of society. As we know that Old English is totally different from Modern English. New Zealand began to be settled by European whalers and missionaries in the 1790s, although an official colony was not established there until 1840. The English colonization of North America had begun as early as 1600. In our faddy, disposable, Internet-informed, digital age, there are even word trends that appear to be custom-designed to be short-lived and epehemeral, words and phrases that are considered no longer trendy once they reach anything close to mainstream usage. igloo, anorak, toboggan, canoe, kayak, parka, muskeg, caribou, moose, etc), as well as the French influence (e.g. So it’s obvious that Late Middle English will have SVO word order structure as it is the base of Modern English, Difference Between Interior Designer And Interior Decorator, Virtual Assistant Advantages And Disadvantages, Analysis Of Nigerian Civil War By Chinua Achebe, Advantages Of Competency Based Performance Management. We saw various word order structures were used in it. Webster also claimed to have invented words such as demoralize, appreciation, accompaniment, ascertainable and expenditure, even though these words had actually been in use for some centuries. raccoon, opossum, moose, chipmunk, skunk, tomato, squash, hickory, etc). A mini lecture on the History of the English language from the Middle English to Early Modern English. Modernism (1901-1939) – Literature from various parts of the world started spreading. Jamaican creole (known locally as “Patwa”, for patois) was one of the deepest in the Caribbean, partly because of the sheer numbers transported there, and the accent there is still so thick as to be almost undecipherable. Chortle and galumph are two words from the poem that made the jump to everyday English, but the work is jam-packed with nonsense words as may be seen from its first few lines: “Twas brillig, and the slithy toves / Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: / All mimsy were the borogoves, / And the mome raths outgrabe”). The final major factor in the development of Modern English was the advent of the printing press, one of the world’s great technological innovations, introduced into England by William Caxton in 1476 (Johann Gutenberg had originally invented the printing press in Germany around 1450). For instance, to the disgust of many, alternate is now almost universally accepted in North America as a replacement for alternative; momentarily has come to mean "very soon" and not (or as well as) "for a very short period of time"; and the use of the modifier literally to mean its exact opposite has recently found it way into the Oxford English Dictionary (where one of its meanings is shown as "used for emphasis rather than being actually true"). The most recent stage in the evolution of the language is commonly called Present-Day English (PDE). Papua New Guinea developed differently, developing a pervasive English-based pidgin language known as Tok Pisin ("Talk Pidgin") which is now its official language. Old English is also known as Anglo- Saxon. The settlement of America served as the route of introduction for many Native American words into the English language. In fact, many of the changes he put forward in his dictionaries were already underway in America (e.g. It is only natural that when people who speak different languages integrate with one another, that their languages will merge to some extent. This timeline offers a glimpse at some of the key events that helped to shape the English language over the past 1,500 years. Most of the early settlers were austere Puritans and they were quite conservative in their adoption of native words, which were largely restricted to terms for native animals and foods (e.g. The meanings of words also continue to change, part of a process that has been going on almost as long as the language itself. From the deliberately misspelled and dialectical works of Artemus Ward and Josh Billings to popular novels like Harriet Beecher Stowe's “Uncle Tom's Cabin” (1852) and Mark Twain's “Huckleberry Finn” (1884), this American vernacular spread rapidly, and became in the process more publicly acceptable both in everyday speech and in literature. One result of the Norman Conquest of 1066 was to place all four Old English dialects more or less on a level. Compra A History of Modern England Volume 2. Dal 1973 Modern English Study Centre è la Scuola di Lingue a Bologna, per imparare l'inglese, corsi per principianti e avanzati, business english, organizzazione soggiorni e vacanze studio all'estero. In Orwell's dystopic novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four", words like doublethink, thoughtcrime, newspeak and blackwhite give a nightmarish vision of where he saw the language going. Over time, the convicts who had served out their time became citizens of the emerging country, and became euphemistically known as “government men”, “legitimates”, “exiles” or “empire builders”. Most of the innovations of the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century were of British origin, including the harnessing of steam to drive heavy machinery, the development of new materials, techniques and equipment in a range of manufacturing industries, and the emergence of new means of transportation (e.g. Parts of the New World had already been long colonized by the French, Spanish and Dutch, but English settlers like the Pilgrim Fathers (and those who soon followed them) went there to stay, not just to search for riches or trading opportunities. Richard Nordquist. This lesson will cover the major events in the development of the English language we know today. notus for notice, bole for bold, ansur for answer, skade for scared, etc). squash is from the native quonterquash or asquutasquash, depending on the region; racoon is from raugraughcun or rahaugcum; hickory is from pawcohiccora; etc). As an interesting aside, in 1941, when Sir Winston Churchill wanted to plumb the depths of the English soul at a particularly crucial and difficult time in the Second World War, almost all of the words in the main part of his famous speech ("we shall fight on the beaches... we shall never surrender") were of Anglo-Saxon origin, with the significant exception of surrender (a French loanword). Settlement of the English Colonies. But colonialism was a two-way phenomenon, and Britain’s dealings with these exotic countries, as well as the increase in world trade in general during this time, led to the introduction of many foreign loanwords into English. Sometime in the middle of that century, Germanic tribes crossed the North Sea and invaded the island we now know as the United … To a lesser extent, French words, from the French presence in the Louisiana area and in Canada, contributed loanwords like gopher, prairie, depot, cache, cent and dime, as well as French-derived place names like Detroit, Illinois, Des Moines, etc. Eliot to William Faulkner to Samuel Beckett and, perhaps most emphatically, the innovations of the Irishman, James Joyce, in “Ulysses” and “Finnegan’s Wake” (although, of the hundreds of new words in these works, only monomyth and quark have enjoyed any currency, and that rather limited). Their language, now called Old English, originated … To some extent, it is true that the colonies were happy to learn the language in order to profit from British industrial and technological advances. byte, cyberspace, software, hacker, laptop, hard-drive, database, online, hi-tech, microchip, etc) was just one element driving the dramatic increase in new English terms, particularly due to the dominance of the USA in the development of computer technology, from IBM to Apple to Microsoft. For simplicity, adjectives often stand in for adverbs (e.g. Old English grammar is similar to Modern Germanic but Modern English is different from what it was before. Perhaps in reaction to the perceived appropriation or co-option of English by the United States, a certain amount of language snobbery continued to grow in England. English was made the official language in 1822 and, as in Australia, a distinctive homogeneous accent developed over time, drawing from the various different groups of settlers. “deef” for deaf, “booty” for beauty, “nater” for nature, etc), although he was responsible for the current American pronunciations of words like schedule and lieutenant. It was the War of 1812 against the Americans, as much as Confederation and independence from Britain in 1867, that definitively cemented the separate identity of English Canada. But he was largely responsible for the revised spelling of words like color and honor (instead of the British colour and honour), traveler and jeweler (for traveller and jeweller), check and mask (for cheque and masque), defense and offense (for defence and offence), plow for plough, as well as the rather illogical adoption of aluminum instead of aluminium. New words were also needed for some geographical features which had no obvious English parallel in the limited experience of the settlers (e.g. The English language underwent more huge changes after 1800. Neologisms are being added all the time, including recent inclusions such as fashionista, metrosexual, McJob, McMansion, wussy, bling, nerd, pear-shaped, unplugged, fracking, truthiness, locavore, parkour, sexting, crowdsourcing, regift, meme, selfie, earworm, meh, diss, suss, emo, twerk, schmeat, chav, ladette, punked, vaping, etc, etc. In 1906, the American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie tried to resurrect some of Webster’s reforms. The resulting stripped-down language may be crude but it is usually serviceable and efficient. But the American use of words like fall for the British autumn, trash for rubbish, hog for pig, sick for ill, guess for think, and loan for lend are all examples of this kind of anachronistic British word usage. New Zealand was keen to emphasize its national identity (and particularly its differences from neighbouring Australia), and this influenced its own version of English, as did the incorporation of native Maori words into the language. Dis/dem/dey are used for this/them/they in order to avoid the difficult English “th” sound, and many other usages are familiar from modern Caribbean accents (e.g. Women at the time were suppressed in the literary sense. Click here for transcript However, since the Second World War, a greater permissiveness towards regional English varieties has taken hold in England, both in education and in the media. There are many languages that were spoken in the word centuries back but today it has no speakers. Double adjectives (e.g. A single sentence from “Finnegan’s Wake” (1939) may suffice to give a taste of the extent of Joyce’s neologistic rampage: In the late 19th Century, the Scottish lexicographer James Murray was given the job of compiling a “New English Dictionary on Historical Principles”. British settlement in South Africa began in earnest in 1820, and nearly half a million English-speaking immigrants moved there during the last quarter of the 19th Century, eager to take advantage of the discoveries of gold and diamonds. A. In addition, a whole body of acronyms, contractions and shorthands for use in email, social networking and cellphone texting has grown up, particularly among the young, including the relatively well-known lol, ttfn, btw, omg, wtf, plz, thx, ur, l8ter, etc. In 1961, South Africa became the only country ever to set up an official Academy to promote the English language. At the same time, regional accents were further denigrated and marginalized. As of 2009, roughly 328 million people speak English as their first language, coming in third to Chinese and Spanish (Languages of the World). Had this not been the case, people would be faced with the task of relearning their native language almost every twenty years. As a continuous process, the development of the English language began in England around the year 449 with the arrival of several Germanic tribes including: the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes (1, p, A HISTORY OF OUR LANGUAGE These changes were mainly due to people putting words together, and also living in close proximity with other Germanic languages. English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon migrants from what is now northwest Germany, southern Denmark and the Netherlands. His 1897 history of English literature (of which the version reissued here was published a year later by William Heinemann as Volume 3 in the series Short Histories of the Literatures of the World) traces the nation's greatest literature, from Chaucer to Tennyson, across eleven chapters. The “Plain English” movement, which emphased clarity, brevity and the avoidance of technical language, was bolstered by Sir Ernest Gowers’ “The Complete Plain Words”, published in the early 1950s, and the trend towards plainer language, appropriate to the target audience, continued in official and legal communications, and was followed by a similar movement in the United Sates during the 1970s. America kept several words (such as burly, greenhorn, talented and scant) that had been largely dropped in Britain (although some have since been recovered), and words like lumber and lot soon acquired their specific American meanings. Verb forms in particular are simplified (e.g. As early as 1789, for example, Noah Webster had predicted “a language in North America as different from the future language of England as the modern Dutch, Danish and Swedish are from the German or from one another”. As we as humans develop, so does our language use and skill, and as time passes, so do certain fashions in languages. compliment usually meant merely polite or conventional praise; inmate connoted an inhabitant of any sort rather than a prisoner; genius was a general word for intelligence, and did not suggest exceptional prowess; regard encompassed a feeling of genuine affection; irritation did not carry its modern negative connotation, merely excitement; grateful could also mean gratifying; to lounge meant to stroll rather than to sit or slouch; to essay mean to attempt something; etc). Later, the Internet it gave rise to (the word Internet itself is derived form Latin, as are audio, video, quantum, etc) generated its own set of neologisms (e.g. As a result of these changes occurring moderately and gradually, it change is hardly noticeable. Last week, we told how the English language developed as … steamships, railways). the spelling of theater and center instead of theatre and centre) and many others may well have happened anyway. Although the English language had barely penetrated into Wales, Ireland and the Scottish Highlands by the time of Shakespeare, just two hundred years later, in 1780, John Adams was confident enough to be able to claim (with a certain amount of foresight, but quite reasonably) that English was “destined to be in the next and succeeding centuries more generally the language of the world than Latin was in the last or French is in the present age”. Modern English years 1700-1900 MODERN ENGLISH 26. English in Canada has also been influenced by successive waves of immigration, from the influx of Loyalists from the south fleeing the American Revolution, to the British and Irish who were encouraged to settle the land in the early 19th Century to the huge immigration from all over the world during the 20th Century. In the second half of the 19th Century, in particular, over 30 million poured into the country from all parts of the world. English originally grew out of the displacement of the Celtic languages spoken by the early Britons prior to the 5th century A.D. Canadian English today contains elements of British English and American English in its vocabulary (it also uses a kind of hybrid of American and British spelling), as well several distinctive “Canadianisms” (like hoser, hydro, chesterfield, etc, and the ubiquitous eh? New ideas, new concepts and new words were introduced in the early science fiction and speculative fiction novels of Mary Shelley, Jules Verne and H.G. b. The main changes in vocabulary during the Late Modern period were due to the industrial revolution, scientifi… Some British slang words, especially Cockney terms and words from the underground “Flash” language of the criminal classes, became more commonly used in Australia than in Britain (e.g. Six modern East African states with a history of 19th Century British imperial rule (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe), gave English official language status on achieving independence in the 1960s. Middle English language, the vernacular spoken and written in England from about 1100 to about 1500, the descendant of the Old English language and the ancestor of Modern English. In Peter Borough Chronicle, we saw that the word order structure so was static. For example, words like blockbuster, nose-dive, shell-shocked, camouflage, radar The Dutch had been in South Africa since the 1650s, but the wave of British settlers soon began to anglicize the Afrikaans (Dutch) and black population. Words are formed and forgotten. Compound or portmanteau words are an increasingly common source of new vocabulary (e.g. Winston Churchill's 1941 War Speech (32 sec) Several English language changes are revealed, AngloSaxon Language Resources like the Urban Dictionary exist for the rest of us to keep track of such fleeting phenomena. When all these things start to change then language is somewhat start to change. The speech is also a good example of what was considered Received Pronunciation at the time. Language is a large part of our everyday lives and shapes our experience of the world. The Anglo-Saxons settled in the British Isles from the mid-5th century and came to dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain. Feminists called into question the underlying sexism in language (e.g. The 1993 South African constitution named no less than eleven official languages, of which English and Afrikaans are but two, but English is increasingly recognized as the lingua franca. But such reforms were fiercely criticized in Britain, and even in America a so-called "Dictionary War" ensued between supporters of Webster's Americanism and the more conservative British-influenced approach of Joseph Worcester and others. Updated July 19, 2020. The popular Uncle Remus stories of the late 19th Century (many of them based around the trickster character of Brer Rabbit and others like Brer Fox, Brer Wolf, etc) are probably based on this kind of creole, mixed with native Cherokee origins (although they were actually collections made by white Americans like Joel Chandler Harris). But, more than anything, the speech of the Loyalists arriving in southern Ontario from states like Pennsylvania and New York, formed the basis of Canadian speech and its accent (including the distinctive pronunciation of the “ou” in words like house and out, and the “i” in words like light). The invention of radio in the 1920s, and then television in the 1930s, disseminated this archetypal English accent to the masses and further entrenched its position, despite the fact that it was only spoken by about 1 in 50 in the general population. The, stipulates that no language can ever be permanently the same, but will always be in a variable and fluctuating state. We also have historical landmarks such, professional athlete. The following passage is from Charles Colcock Jones Jr.’s 1888 story “Brer Lion an Brer Goat”: Many of the words may look strange at first, but the meanings become quite clear when spoken aloud, and the spellings give a good approximation of a black/Caribbean accent (e.g. A pidgin is a reduced language that results from extended contact between people with no language in common. coward man) and verbs may be simplified (e.g. Every year words are added to and taken from the dictionary. History of Modern è l'undicesimo album degli Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. Language changes because of a person’s vocabulary and location, but what happens to a language, like the English language, that is spread across the whole world? Most human languages last for a few hundred to a thousand or so years before it evolves into something unrecognizable. the word verbify is itself a prime example; others include to thumb, to parrot, to email, to text, to google, to medal, to critique, to leverage, to sequence, to interface, to tase, to speechify, to incentivize, etc), although some modern-sounding verbs have surprisingly been in the language for centuries (e.g. Normans were French people so Middle English language had a great influence of French vocabulary. President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to use these spellings for all federal publications and they quickly caught on, although there was still stiff resistance to such recommended changes as tuf, def, troble, yu, filosofy, etc. 1750 and 1900 was written in English be bae, on fleek, YOLO ( you only live once,! Other languages good example of what was considered Received pronunciation at the time. 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